Wednesday, August 16, 2017

The orthodox interpretation of the prophetic period 'The seventy weeks' of Daniel 9, makes the sixty-ninth ‘week’ end at the crucifixion, leaving but one ‘week’ to be accounted for. This of necessity rules out the Acts of the apostles, although it is true to say that Israel were not set aside at the crucifixion, but about thirty-five years (or five ‘weeks’) after, namely at Acts 28.

The prophecy of Daniel 9 is read by many as follows:

The 69th week ended just before the crucifixion of Christ, and therefore the final seven years are all that remain to complete the number, and these are entirely future and are found in the Book of the Revelation.

We would draw special attention to an interpretation (we believe the true one), in which a certain principle is enunciated, viz., that prophetic times do not take into account the periods when Israel are ‘Lo-ammi’ (not My people, Hos. 1:9). In The Companion Bible, page 70 of the Appendixes, will be found a table showing the various ‘Lo-ammi’ times that must be deducted from the number of anno mundi years before we can arrive at God’s time periods. At the conclusion of this table the note runs, ‘By noting the Lo-ammi periods, many other important details will come to light’.

We believe the following investigation is directly in line with this suggestion. First, let us establish from the Scriptures the principle that God’s prophetic times take no account of Israel’s captivities or cast off periods, but only of the times of their recognition. The classic example is that which arises out of the comparison of 1 Kings 6:1 with Acts 13:20. According to 1 Kings 6:1, the temple was commenced in the 480th year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, while Paul in Acts 13:17-22 gives the period under the Judges as 450 years. When we extend Paul’s time period to include that covered by 1 Kings 6:1, we find a difference of 93 years:

 

                                                               Years
Wilderness Wandering (Acts 13:18) 40
Period of Judges (Acts 13:20) 450
Saul’s Reign (Acts 13:21) 40
David’s Reign (1 Kings 2:11) 40
Solomon’s First Three Complete Years (1 Kings 6:1) 3
+ 573
Deduct -- Solomon’s Computation (1 Kings 6:1)      - 480
Total to account for 93

 

We find by examination and the recognition of the principle referred to above, that there is no discrepancy, and that both accounts are exactly right, the one in 1 Kings 6, omitting the periods when Israel were ‘Lo-ammi’, the other in Acts 13 giving the entire period of the judges, without reference to the position occupied by Israel. The ninety-three years are made up as follows. Israel were captive under:

 

Chushan (Judges 3:8)    8 years
Eglon (Judges 3:14) 18 years
Jabin (Judges 4:3) 20 years
Midianites (Judges 6:1) 7 years
Philistines    (Judges 13:1)  40 years
Total  93 years


We learn therefore, that to obtain the number of years as from God’s standpoint, when dealing with Israel, we must subtract the periods when Israel are not recognized by the Lord as His people. (See also The Companion Bible note on 1 Kings 6:1, p. 456; and appendix 50, p. 56).  Number in Scripture (by Dr. E. W. Bullinger) draws attention to another period of 70 x 7, which is obtained by the application of this same principle.

 

From the dedication of the Temple to
Nehemiah’s return in the 20th year of Artaxerxes (Neh. 2:1)

560 years

Deduct the 70 years’ servitude in Babylon
(Jer. 25:11,12; Dan. 9:2)

70 years
Total  490 years


We draw particular attention to the fact that the 70 years’ servitude is reckoned as a Lo-Ammi period.

We now pass to the next consideration, Daniel 9 itself:

‘Seventy sevens are severed offupon thy people and upon thy holy city

a To make an end of transgression.

b To seal up sins.

c To make atonement for iniquity.

a To bring in aionion righteousness.

b To seal up prophetic vision.

c To anoint the Holy of Holies.

Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to rebuild Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and three-score and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall even in troublous times. And after sixty-two sevens shall Messiah be cut off, and shall have nothing’ (Dan. 9:24-26 author’s translation).

(1) 7 x 7 = 49

(The Angel keeps these figures distinct).

(2) 62 x 7 = 434

Daniel 9 opens with the recognition of the fact that Jerusalem was at that time ‘desolate’. Verse 7 speaks plainly of the people of Israel being ‘driven’, and verse 11 of the ‘curse’ being poured upon them. Verse 12 declares that the visitation upon Jerusalem was unprecedented ‘under the whole heaven’. Verse 16 speaks of ‘fury’ upon Jerusalem and ‘reproach’ upon Israel, and verse 17 speaks of the sanctuary being ‘desolate’. Clearly at this period Israel are ‘Lo-ammi’, and the time of the desolation of Jerusalem must not be reckoned in the 70 x 7 period which is ‘severed off’ upon Israel.

Now from what we have already learned, we shall find it impossible to commence the reckoning of this 490 years at a period when Jerusalem is still desolate and Israel ‘Lo-ammi’. Yet this is precisely what the accepted interpretation does. The 490 years are made to start from the going forth of the commandment to rebuild Jerusalem, in spite of the angel’s warning that the rebuilding would not be completed until another 49 years had gone by. Instead of the angel saying to Daniel that the 70 x 7 started in the 20th year of Artaxerxes when the commandment was given, he definitely says that from that date we may compute the coming of the Messiah, a somewhat different thing. From the date of the command unto the Messiah was 7 x 7 and 62 x 7, or 483 years, which period was divided by the angel into two, according as it was ‘Lo-ammi’ time or otherwise. The first period of 49 years must not be reckoned at the period severed off upon Israel, or else we shall involve ourselves in confusion.

Where shall we then commence the special period of 70 x 7? When Israel are received back into favour and the temple at Jerusalem again blessed. In the year 405 b.c., when the temple was dedicated at Jerusalem, the 70 x 7 began. It was to be the commencement of a period of ‘Ammi’ years, years when God recognized Israel as His people, a period of 62 x 7, or 434 years, which should reach to the coming of Messiah the Prince. While the crucifixion marks the close of the 69th seven from the going forth of the proclamation, we must remember that it is the 62nd from the dedication of the temple, and as this commenced the period of Israel’s restoration, the crucifixion marks the 62nd seven of the 70 sevens that were severed off upon Israel, leaving 8 sevens to run their course, instead of one as we have hitherto been taught.

We have shown, in other articles, the prominent position that Israel has in the Acts of the apostles, yet by following the orthodox view it appears that we are compelled to make a twofold error. First, in spite of the witness of Scripture to the contrary, a period of 49 years, wherein Israel and Jerusalem are out of favour, is introduced into a special period that necessitates Israel and Jerusalem being under favour and security, and it also compels us to blot out the whole of the Acts from this special period wherein Israel and Jerusalem manifestly are still receiving mercy. If the 69th seven ended at the crucifixion, there could be no place for Paul’s solemn and formal setting aside of Israel at the end of the Acts.

Readers will remember that a rectification was found necessary in the calendar, and that the date of the crucifixion is AD 29. This can be seen in Chart 50.vi on page 61 of Appendixes of The Companion Bible. From AD 29 to AD 63, when God finally set aside Israel through the words of Paul, we have 34 years, where, if we include both the years that began and ended the period, we have another five sevens which ran on after the crucifixion. The crucifixion being the 62nd seven, Israel becomes lo-ammi at the end of Acts, in the 67th seven, leaving three sevens to conclude the complete series of 490 years. We must not therefore speak of the ‘final seven years of Daniel 9’ as though they were all the years that are to run. It is true that the chief interest is centered in the final seven, for therein Antichrist and the Beast are active, but there are other things to be done before that.

There is a suggestive connection to be observed between the final three sevens and the seven seals, seven trumpets and seven vials that occupy the book of the Revelation.  It will be seen that the marvellous accuracy that has been pointed out regarding the time of the coming of the Messiah is not impaired. It is simply a matter, as it were, of shifting the whole period forward until Israel are a people before God. That period is at the close of the first division, the seven sevens. Since the setting aside of Israel in Acts 28, Israel have been ‘Lo-ammi’. Soon He that scattered them will gather them, and the ‘final three sevens’ will then run their course until the consummation foretold in Daniel 9, when prophecy shall attain its goal, sin shall be sealed and atoned for, righteousness be brought in, and God’s Holy Temple again anointed.

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Those who value dispensational truth often have a problem with the so-called Great Commission of Matt. 28:19-20, for it seems to conflict with the commission given by the Lord Jesus to the twelve apostles in Matt. 10:

"These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles (the nations), and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. 10:5-6),

and this was in line with His own ministry, for to a Gentile woman He said,

"I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. 15:24).

The Lord restricted His earthly ministry to Israel and also that of the twelve apostles. However, after His resurrection He appeared to contradict this to the same apostles:

"Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee . . . . . and Jesus came and spake to them, saying, All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations (Gentiles), baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world (age). Amen" (Matthew 28:16-20).

It is quite clear that now their ministry was greatly enlarged to embrace all nations, but what was the reason for this? Many interpret it of the future gathering in of the church, but in the Scriptures that follow, this is shown to be wrong. The Body of Christ at this time was still a secret "hid in God" (Eph. 3:1-11; Col. 1:24-27) and what God hides no one can find until He chooses to reveal. He did this through Paul's prison epistles.

In the passage quoted in Matt. 28:19-20 the Lord Jesus speaks as the One having all the resources of heaven as well as earth at His command. This can mean nothing less than sovereignty in both spheres of heaven and earth. His authority and power in His earthly life had been great (Matt. 7:29; Matt. 11:27). Now it is boundless and it is this fact that must be proclaimed the world over, so that His kingdom and authority may at last be realized.

The Gospel of Matthew commences with the restriction of His ministry and that of the disciples to Israel (Matt. 10:5-8; Matt. 15:23-24). In Mark's account, to the Gentile Syro-Phoenician woman, the word of Christ were, "let the children first be filled" (Mark 7:26-27). The children were Israel; they were to have the message first, but not first and last, that is for the kingdom message to be permanently restricted to them. Its world-wide extent is implicit in God's unconditional promise to Abraham, that through his seed (posterity) all families of the earth would finally be blessed (Genesis 12:1-3).

In God's earthly kingdom He purposes redeemed Israel to be the channel of blessing to the whole world, and it was for this purpose alone that God planned to make them the premier nation of the earth, spiritually and temporally, for they were to be a priestly nation (Exod. 14.) that could mediate God's truth (Deut. 7:6; Deut. 28:1, Deut. 28:13; Psa. 135:4; 147:19-20; Acts 13:46-47 and many other Scriptures). Israel was to be the divine agent God would use to make Himself known to all nations, so that at last His kingdom on earth could be established.

This also explains why there is the stress on the word "world" in the Gospel of John (79 occurrences). It in no way contradicts the Lord's statement in Matt. 15:24, that His earthly ministry was to Israel. We must remember that the words of Christ recorded by John were part of this earthly ministry and they must primarily be kept in this setting and all of them must be studied with this in mind. Whether the dating of John's Gospel was early or late cannot alter this important fact. However late it was, it could not be revealing the great secret of Eph. 3 and Col. 1 concerning the Body of Christ, for that was kept for Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ, to make known under the guidance of the Holy Spirit after Israel was laid aside in unbelief (Acts 28:28). It is in the epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians we find the revelation of the Body of Christ, giving its calling, constitution and heavenly destiny.

In the O.T. and during the Lord's earthly ministry, Israel had alas forgotten that God's choice and purpose for them had the whole world in view. They looked on the Gentiles as "dogs" therefore the Lord Jesus emphasizes the word "world" as a corrective in His ministry to them, recorded in the Gospel of John, showing them that He had a wider purpose. The earthly kingdom made known in the Gospels was the great Messianic kingdom of the Old Testament prophets, and it was this kingdom that the fore-runner, John the Baptist, proclaimed followed by the Lord Himself. It was already known, being revealed in its wondrous details in the O.T.

Thus it was that this kingdom was described in the model kingdom prayer, given by the Lord, "Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven" (Matt. 6:9-13). Even when Israel had crucified her King and Redeemer, this purpose of God was not ended, for the period covered by the Acts followed in which Israel had another opportunity of repentance and turning back to God. The Jew was still first both for judgment and blessing (Rom. 1:16-17; Rom. 2:8-11). We find both Peter and Paul putting them first in their ministry. God's tremendous long-suffering had not run out as Peter made clear in Acts 3:19-26. If they repented and turned back, their sins and opposition would be forgiven and their King would be sent back to them again. The kingdom was still "the restoration of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets" (verse 21). They had "foretold of these days" (verse 24) and Israel was still "the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with the fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all families of the earth be blessed" (verse 25).

The great implication of these most important verses has been missed by so many that we do not wonder at all the confusion of ideas about the Kingdom of God (The reader is directed to: http://believer.com/kingdom-and-church).

Prophecy makes it quite clear that finally many nations (Gentiles) are to be blessed with Israel (Zech. 2:10-13 and Isa. 19:23-25). Christ will then become King and Lord of the whole earth (Zech. 14:9). Once we keep this in mind we shall be in a better position to understand the "great commission" of Matt. 28:18-20. We shall then be able to appreciate this ministry in its rightful God-given setting and avoid divorcing it from the kingdom of heaven, finally to be established on earth. It concerns discipling or teaching the Gentiles in every land and baptizing them in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

The water baptism of the Acts period was in the name of Jesus Christ as the God-man, the great Mediator and King. We find no single instance of, or reference to, baptism in which the Triune name of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is employed. On the contrary, from the very first, only ten days after the injunction had been given, Peter is found (Acts 2:38) commanding all his hearers including those of the dispersion (the diaspora) to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Acts 8:16, Acts 10:48 and Acts 19:5 are in accord, the formula being in or into the name of the Lord, or the Lord Jesus. In the last case, whether this refers to those who heard John or Paul, or whether the baptism was that of John or Paul, the formula is the same. Rom. 6:3, "as many of us as were baptized into Christ Jesus". 1 Cor. 1:13-15; here baptism "in the name of Paul" is clearly contrasted with baptism in the name of the Lord Jesus, or Christ Jesus, which must have been used as to Crispus, Gaius, and Stephanas.

In all the other places where the act of baptism is mentioned, directly or indirectly, the formula by implication is the same. These are: Acts 8:38; Acts 9:18, Acts 16:15, Acts 16:33, Acts 18:8, Acts 22:16. Yet on the other hand there stands the definite command in Matt. 28:19-20, as to the discipling of THE NATIONS into the Triune name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

The "difficulty" is created by non-observance of the injunction in 2 Tim. 2:15 as to "rightly dividing the word of truth". It comes by mixing up and thus confusing the "mystery" concerning the church of God during the "times of the Gentiles" with the ordinances and observances of the "times" of Messiah (Isa. 33:6), with which the command in Matt. 28:19-20 has clearly to do, as the discipling of the nations AS NATIONS, is expressly declared. It is the commission of the Jewish ministry at the end of this age. There is nothing corresponding to this form of baptism in any of the foregoing passages, all of which are connected with individuals or families. Inasmuch as the mystery is the great secret which was "kept secret since the world began" (Rom. 16:25; Eph. 3:9; Col. 1:26), it follows logically that it must not be read into the Gospels.

The "discipling" work of Matt. 28:19, 20 is national work: its object -- to bring all nations into blessing with Israel. It has nothing to do with the present dispensation and the "one baptism" (Eph. 4:5) of this dispensation. Matt. 28:19-20 takes up the proclamation of the kingdom, left uncompleted in Matt. 10:5-15, after the church has been called on high. Therefore, the baptism "in" or "into" the name of the Lord Jesus in Acts, was the continuation of John's baptism for a while, i.e. during the transitional period of Acts until the mystery was openly revealed and fully proclaimed. Then, the baptism of Eph 4:5 supervened and still maintains.

To hold, as some do, that the disciples had "forgotten", or were "ignorant of", or else ignored" the express command of the Lord, is to charge those spirit endowed men with either incompetence or insubordination! Peter and John and the rest must have known well the meaning and future reference of Matt. 28:19-20; and they knew of John's baptism also: but until "led on" into more of "all the truth", by the Holy Spirit, and until the revelation of the secret concerning the church which is His body was declared, they continued to baptize, as John had done, into the name of the Lord Jesus.

This great commission is essentially one of teaching and it must be one of the greatest teaching ministries of Scripture. To understand it in any measure we must not only keep it to the setting given in Matthew's Gospel, but also to the other Scriptures which pertain to it relating to the Messianic kingdom.

Perhaps we have wondered how the knowledge of the glory of the Lord will one day "cover the earth, as the waters cover the sea" (Isa. 11:9)? The commission given to the apostles in Matt. 28 is doubtless one of the means used by God as well as the ministry of redeemed and restored Israel during the millennium. Even in the Acts period the Lord Jesus commanded the eleven and said, "ye shall be witnesses unto Me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth" (Acts 1:8, see also Luke 24:46-47). Jerusalem in prophecy is the geographical pivot of the kingdom on earth and the light and knowledge radiate from it world-wide. This is in accord with the gospel of the kingdom which is also preached to all nations of the earth (Matt. 24:14).

The final words of the Lord Jesus before His ascension were:

"I am with you alway, even unto the consummation of the age (literally)" (Matt.28:20).

Note the present tense "I am", not "I have been or will be". The Lord uses the prophetic perfect here to stress His constant presence and enabling. And "if God be for us, who can be against us?" (Rom. 8:31). Satan and the powers of darkness have been conquered for ever by the victorious risen and ascended Lord and He will finally reign forever and ever both on earth and in all regions of the heavens.

To sum up: we have seen that the great stress on the word "world" in John's Gospel, mankind in general, was to remind Israel of their responsibility that, through them, all families of the earth should be blessed. This does not mean that this Gospel is Jewish in the sense that it was addressed solely to Israel and was entirely about Israel. This is the province of Matthew's Gospel. John's parish, so to speak is mankind as a whole, whether Jew or Gentile and it has a basic message for each, namely eternal life through faith in Christ alone which gives either of them new birth and freedom from condemnation (John 3:3; John 3:24). Without this new birth a man "cannot see the kingdom of God", but with it he can, for he is now "born of the Spirit" (John 3:8) and has this new life which is eternal and now is linked with Christ by faith. If anyone is troubled by the word "water" in these verses they should consult Dr. E. W. Bullinger's The Giver and His Gifts page 63-68 where he shows that the meaning is "spiritual water" by the figure Hendiadys. In this context is the precious message of John 3:16 which has been the means of salvation to millions in this present age.

God is using more than one way of bringing Gentile sinners to Himself in order to realize His earthly kingdom. He is using the Gospel of John with its emphasis on "he that believeth in Me hath everlasting life". He will later on use the gospel of the kingdom to all the nations of the world (Matt. 24:14). He will also use redeemed Israel after His second Advent to be His witnesses `to the uttermost parts of the earth' (Luke.24:46-48; Acts 1:8), so at last the time will come when "the kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign for ever and ever" (Rev. 11:5). Then the Lord shall be not just the King of Israel, but "king over all the earth" (Zech. 14:9).

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Lo-ammi "Not My people". It is demonstrated from Scripture that Israel alone, with one exceptional case, are called "People"; the nations of the earth are never so called except in the plural - "peoples". To one nation only has the title "My people" ever been given and that is Israel. The exception is found in Titus 2:14, where the church is spoken of as a peculiar people, but that title is used while Israel themselves are "lo-ammi", not My people. At Acts twenty-eight Israel pass off the scene and the parenthetical dispensation of the Mystery begins. See "THE ACTS 28 CRISIS".

With this great dispensational feature indicated by the words lo-ammi we approach under the following headings:

  • The testimony of Acts thirteen to the lo-ammi period that was approaching.
  • The O.T. illustration provided in the book of Judges.
  • The prophecy of Hosea, where the name lo-ammi occurs.

Acts thirteen records the opening of Paul's great missionary activity. A Jew who withstood the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles is blinded and a Gentile is a saved one in dramatic fashion of the sequel found in Acts twenty-eight, where the nation of Israel is blinded and salvation sent to the Gentiles. Acts 13:16-41 is the record of Paul's witness in the synagogue at Antioch, and it opens and closes with a reference to Israel which involves the recognition of the "lo-ammi" principle.

The prophet Hosea supplies us with the title of Israel 'Lo-ammi' that provides a key to the fulfillment of prophecy and to the understanding of the present parenthetical dispensation of the Mystery.

Hosea
The restoration of Israel, symbolized and promised

The prophecy of Hosea follows those of Jonah and Amos so far as chronological order is concerned, but stands at the head of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew canon. The name Hosea is the Hebrew word for "salvation" and appears in chapter one, in the promise;

"But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will SAVE them by the Lord their God, and will not SAVE them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen" (Hosea 1:7).

This promise might well be taken as the key promise of the prophecy. The word reappears in the closing section of the prophecy.

"Thou shalt have no god but Me; for there is no SAVIOUR beside Me" (Hos. 13:4).

"I will be thy King: where is any other that may SAVE thee in all thy cities?" (Hos. 13:10).

"Asshur shall not SAVE us; we will not ride upon horses; neither will we say any more to the work of our hands, Ye are our gods: for in Thee the fatherless findeth mercy" (Hos. 14:3).

The reader will not fail to observe how this last reference perfectly balances the first, even to the inclusion of the word "mercy". This insistence upon the word "salvation" and "save" suggested by the name of the Prophet, is a feature that is noticeable in another grouping of the prophets in the Hebrew canon. The term "prophet" covers some books which are historical rather than predictive and opens with the book of Joshua, and closes with the book of the minor prophets considered as one book. The "prophets" therefore of the Hebrew canon open with "Joshua" the Salvation of the Lord, the Captain, and closes with "Joshua" the Salvation of the Lord, the High Priest. The whole prophetic section of the O.T. being bounded by the name borne by THE Saviour, for "Jesus" is but the Greek spelling of Joshua, as a reference to Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8 will show.

A discussion on such a theme as "the nature of God" is naturally outside the scope of studies such as this, but none should be able to read the words "I will . . . save them by the LORD their God" (Hos. 1:7) without being struck by its peculiar phraseology. It is "The LORD" Who is the speaker, verse 4, "And the LORD said . . . I will avenge . . . I will break. . . And (God, the word supplied by the A.V.) said . . . I will no more. . . I will utterly . . . I will have mercy &c. and will save." If the passage had read "I will save them by Myself" it would have been readily understood. It must be remembered that of "God, Absolute and Unconditioned" we know, and can know nothing. He Himself is greater than all His names, and by His very nature Unnameable. In this verse in Hosea we see, as it were, God Himself, referring to Himself in the realm of the manifest and the conditioned. He is "Jehovah THEIR God", Who in fullness of time became Man and was known as "The Man Christ Jesus".

The opening chapters of Hosea (1-3) are chiefly characterized by the fact that the Prophet enacts in his own family life the message that he has to tell, and, this is followed by another section (4-14) in which the Prophet, while still using symbol, speaks the message by word of mouth.

"The beginning of the word of the LORD by Hosea. And the LORD said to Hosea, Go take unto thee a wife" (Hos. 1:2).

"Go yet, love a woman" (Hos. 3:1).

"Hear the word of the LORD, ye children of Israel" (Hos. 4:1).

This is the continuance of the prophecy of Hosea. The word translated "beginning" is not the same as that found in Genesis 1:1. It is the Hebrew chalal, and is found again in the margin of Hosea 8:10, where the text reads "sorrow". It may appear strange to the casual reader that a word can mean either "beginning" or "sorrow", but the fact is, that the idea of a "beginning" is a derived meaning, the primary idea of chalal being "to perforate", thence by stages "to lay open", "to give access and so profane or defile", and eventually "to begin" in the sense of "opening".

While a verbal connection between the word "beginning" and the subsequent strange episode in the life of the prophet would not be evident to the English reader, Hosea, who was commissioned by God to "take a wife of whoredoms" (Hos. 1:2) would scarcely fail to note the word "beginning" was derived from the word meaning "to lay open, profane, defile", and employed by Moses and other writers for the very pollution and profanation he was called upon to exhibit (Lev. 21:7, Lev. 21:9, Lev. 21:14, Lev. 19:29).

It does not necessarily follow that Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim, was an immoral woman. It means that she was of "Israel" as distinct from "Judah", for Israel, that is the Ten Tribes, had become idolaters, having their own sanctuary at Beth-el. We have already learned about the "altars of Beth-el" from the prophet Amos, and Hosea refers to Beth-el in Hos. 10:15 and Hos. 12:4 in a markedly contrasted manner.

The two marriage contracts into which Hosea entered, are highly significant, and must now be examined.

A Hos. 1:2. "Go take a wife of whoredoms"

B Hos. 1:2. Meaning, the departure of the land from the LORD

C Hos. 1:3. Hosea takes Gomer

D Hos. 1:4-2:23.

E Hos. 1:4-9. The three children.
Prophetic Significance
a Jezreel'" I will avenge"
b Lo-ruhamah "Not. . . mercy"
c lo-ammi "Not My people"

F Hos. 1:10-11, Hos. 2:1. Prophetic import of the three names

F Hos. 2:2-22. Prophetic fulfillment of three names

E Hos. 2:23. The three children.
a Jezreel "I will sow"
b Ruhamah "Mercy"
c Ammi "My people"

A Hos. 3:1. "Go yet love . . . an adulteress"

B Hos. 3:1. Meaning. Israel, who looks to other gods

C Hos. 3:2. Hosea buys her, with the price of a slave

D Hos. 3:4,5

E Hos. 3:4. Many days
Prophetic Significance

F Hos. 3:4. Abide without a king ete.

E Hos. 3:5. Afterwards

F Hos. 3:5. Return. . . Lord and David their king

E Hos. 3:5. Latter days.

It is evident by this disposition of the subject-matter, that these two marriage contracts entered into by the Prophet were intended to set forth in symbol the relationship of the Lord to (Prophetic Significance) Israel, their defection, the long period of their estrangement and their final restoration.

The names of the three children which were born were most certainly given because of their typical meaning. The name of the wife, Gomer, does not appear to have been chosen because of its meaning, but because of its association. Gomer was the name of a northern people, of Japhetic origin (Gen. 10:2). Some believe that from these descended the Cimerii, the ancestors of the Cymry or the Welsh. Israel by their sins and idolatry had put themselves in the position of the far-off Gentiles. The three children of this marriage were named by God's instruction Jezreel, Lo-ruhamah and Lo-ammi (Hos. 1:4, Hos. 1:6 and Hos. 1:9).

Jezreel. First it should be observed that there is in this name a paronomasia between Israel (Yisrael) and Jezreel (Yizrael). Then, it must be remembered that two words similar in sound, provide a further prophetic foreshadowing. The Hebrew word "to sow" is zara, the Hebrew word "to scatter" is zarah, so that the expressions "may God sow" and "may God scatter" appear very similar to the eye and ear in the original. Israel were to be "scattered" among the nations (Lev. 26:33, Jer. 31:10), but eventually they were to be "sown" again in their own land (Jer. 31:27). The prophet Zechariah uses the word "sow" with the meaning equivalent to "scatter" (Zech. 10:9). The scattered tribes of Israel were known as "the dispersion" (Ezek. 12:15, John 7:35) and "the twelve tribes scattered abroad" (Jas. 1:1) where the Greek word for "seed" spora enters into the composition of the word diaspora "the dispersed or scattered".

In this name, therefore, of Hosea's firstborn son, the whole of Israel's history is compressed. They shall be scattered, but they shall at last be gathered. The names of the two children that followed are prophetic of the condition of Israel during this scattering, Lo-ruhamah meaning "not having obtained mercy", Lo-ammi meaning "not My people".

The "lo-ammi" period of Israel's scattering is of the utmost importance to the right understanding of the dispensational place of the Mystery and the church of the One Body. Israel became "lo-ammi" at Acts 28:28, when for the first time in history it could be said "the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles" independently of Israel. In God's good time, a complete reversal will be made of all the conditions that are now associated with Israel's blindness, which reversal is the subject of Hosea 2:23-

"I will sow", Jezreel, the second meaning attached to the Hebrew name;

"I will have mercy", removing the negative "lo" from the name Lo-ruhamah; and

"My people", removing the negative "lo" from the name lo-ammi. Great shall be the day of Jezreel when this blessed reversal takes place (Hos. 1:11).

The second relationship of Hosea is given in chapter three. The word translated "friend" in Hosea 3:1 is the Hebrew rea, which differs from the word translated "evil" in the vowel points, and is usually translated ra. The LXX translators translate this verse "go yet, and love a woman that loves evil things, and an adulteress", and it is in line with the truth for which this symbol stands that these words should refer to the same woman - Gomer - who had acted unfaithfully even as Israel had done. We sincerely hope that by so concluding we have not said evil of an innocent person, and must of course leave the matter to the judgment of the reader, or, better still, to the judgment of "that day".

The woman in view had evidently become seriously involved, for the price paid by Hosea was the price demanded for the liberation of a slave. The symbolism of this new marital transaction is then explained:

"For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a King, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and without teraphim. Afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the LORD their God, and David their king: And shall fear the LORD and His goodness in the latter days" (Hos. 3:4-5).

The interval of the "many days" is to be characterized by a mutual "abiding" or "waiting". The woman was to "abide" without further unfaithfulness, the man would abide and wait also. This waiting negative attitude is explained by the six fold negation of verse 4. Israel has had no "king" since the days of their captivity. On the other hand, the very scattering among the nations has made it impossible for any foreign prince to rule over them. Since the destruction of Jerusalem, Israel have been deprived of the right to offer sacrifice, but, since the days of their captivity they have never again fallen under the old spell of idolatry, they have had no priest in the true sense of the word, but neither have they teraphim.

The Bible student needs no explanation of these terms, except perhaps the last, teraphim. This word is variously explained, but always with a consciousness that much to do with its origin and intention is unknown. Dr. J. E. Shelley contributed a suggestive article to the Bible League Quarterly in 1939 in which he speaks of the "generations" which compose the bulk of the book of Genesis, and suggests that these "ancestral tablets" were called teraphim by association with Terah the father of Abraham, and says that "certain Jewish legends represent Terah as actually a maker of idols". The word "teraphim" occurs but six times in the English of the A.V. All the references, apart from Hosea three, being found in Judges seventeen and eighteen. The word occurs, however, fifteen times altogether in the O. T., being translated "image", "idolatry" and "idol". It was the teraphim that Rachel stole and hid (Gen. 31:19-35). It was the teraphim that Michal placed in the bed vacated by David (1 Sam. 19:13-16). In 1 Samuel 15:23, Ezekiel 21:21 and Zechariah 10:2 it will be seen that the teraphim were consulted and associated with witchcraft and divination.

"When the temple in Jerusalem was burned in A.D. 70 all the genealogical records of Israel's tribes were utterly destroyed. There is no man among the Jews today who can prove definitely of which tribe he is, by giving his genealogical records" (Dr. J. E. Shelley).

Israel had long been without a king, when they entered their lo-ammi condition at Acts twenty-eight. The last thing to go at the destruction of the temple would have been their genealogical records. Since that date Israel has "waited", and must wait until a priest stands up with Urim and Thummim - in other words, until the Lord Himself returns.

The words of Hosea 6:1-2 suggest that the period covered by this "abiding" will be "two days", which in the symbolical use of the term may cover the two thousand years that may intervene before their complete restoration. As we have no certain knowledge as to when this period actually started, it is useless to attempt to compute the date of Israel's restoration, but we can read the signs of the times.

The return of Israel, with the confession that they will make, constitutes the closing chapter of this prophecy. All is graciously reversed. Instead of being lo-ammi and lo-ruhamah the fatherless find mercy (Hos. 14:3). Their backsliding is healed, and this restored people grow as the lily, have the beauty of the olive, the odor of Lebanon, with their fruit derived alone from the Lord.

Finally, let us never forget that, not only will Israel be "not My people" during this dark period of their history, but God declared "I will not be your God".

Let those who treat the record of Acts twenty-eight with scant concern, think again what the intervening nineteen hundred years would have been like had no parenthetical dispensation come into being.

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Where we read of "hope" in the New Testament we often find in the context a reference either to a "promise" or to a "calling". For example, Paul before Agrippa says:

"And now I stand and am judged for THE HOPE OF THE PROMISE made of God unto our fathers; unto which promise OUR TWELVE TRIBES, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come" (Acts 26:6-7).

Here there is no possibility of making a mistake. Not only is the hope that is in view the fulfillment of a promise, but it is the fulfillment of a specific promise "made of God unto our fathers". Further, there is no ambiguity as to those who entertain this hope; the words "our twelve tribes" are too explicit to permit of spiritualizing. For the moment it is sufficient that the principle should be clear, that HOPE LOOKS TO THE FULFILLMENT OF A PROMISE. It is therefore necessary to discover what promise has been made to any particular company before we can speak with understanding of their hope. Another prerequisite is a knowledge of the "calling" concerned.

"That ye may know what is THE HOPE OF HIS CALLING" (Eph. 1:18).

"Even as ye are called in ONE HOPE OF YOUR CALLING" (Eph. 4:4).

The realization of our hope in the future will be in agreement with our calling now by faith.

"Now faith is the substance of things HOPED for" (Heb. 11:1).

Recent discoveries among the papyri of Egypt have brought to light the fact that the word "substance" was used in New Testament times to signify the "Title Deeds" of a property. Every believer holds the title-deeds now, by faith, the earnest and first-fruits of the inheritance that will be entered when his hope is realized. As every believer does not necessarily belong to the same calling, and most believers grant a distinction between Kingdom and Church, while some realize the further distinction between Bride and Body, it follows that the character of the calling must be settled before the hope can be defined.

THREE SPHERES OF BLESSING

There are at least three distinct spheres of blessing indicated in the New Testament:

The Earth. - "Blessed are the meek; for they shall inherit the earth" (Matt. 5:5).

The Heavenly City. - "The city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem . . . and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven" (Heb. 12:22-23).

Far above all. - "He ascended up, far above all heavens" (Eph.4:10). "And made us sit together in heavenly places" (Eph. 2:6).

These three spheres of blessing correspond to three distinct callings:

The Kingdom. - "Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth" (Matt. 6:10).

The Bride. - "The Bride, the Lamb's wife . . . the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God" (Rev. 21:9-10).

The Body. - "His body. . . the church: whereof I (Paul) am made a minister, according to the dispensation of God which is given to me for you . . . the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations" (Col. 1:24-26).

These three spheres of blessing, each with its special calling, have associated with them three groups of people in the N.T. The first sphere of blessing is exclusive to ISRAEL according to the flesh; the second to believers from among both "JEW and GREEK", while in the third sphere the calling is addressed to "YOU GENTILES".

Israel according to the flesh. - "My kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises, whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, Who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen" (Rom. 9:3-5).

Abraham's seed (includes believing Gentiles). - "Having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh? . . . they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. . . . For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. There is neither Jew or Greek . . . for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise" (Gal. 3:3, Gal. 3:7, Gal. 3:9, Gal. 3:27-29).

If, at the end of verse 28, we "shut the book", we may "prove" that the blessed unity indicated by the words "neither Jew nor Greek" refers to the "Church which is His Body". If, however, we keep the book open, we see that such is not the sequel, but that this new company are "Abraham's seed", and the hope before them "the promise" made to Abraham. The reader may readily assent to this, but we would urge him to remember that 1 Thessalonians and Galatians were both written before Acts twenty-eight, and therefore before the revelation of the Mystery. The hope then of 1 Thessalonians four belongs to the same calling as that of Galatians and cannot constitute the hope of the Mystery.

The One New Man. - "Where there is neither Greek nor Jew . . . but Christ is all and in all" (Col. 3:11).

"That He might create in Himself of the twain one new man, so making peace" (Eph. 2:15 R.V.).

"That the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs" (Eph. 3:6).

Space will not permit of extensive proofs of the suggestions made in the foregoing paragraphs, or of a detailed exposition of the passages concerned; but we believe that the matter is sufficiently clear for us to go forward with our inquiry. Seeing then that there are three spheres of blessing, with their three associated callings, we should expect to find three phases of the Coming of the Lord. These three phases are presented in the following Scriptures:

Kingdom on earth. - HOPE. Matt. 24-25.

Abraham's seed (heavenly calling). - HOPE. 1 Thess. 4.

Far above all. - HOPE. Col. 3:4.

Let us look at each phase of the second advent as presented by these three passages.

THE HOPE OF THE FIRST SPHERE
The Sign of the coming of the Son of Man

The earthly ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ was limited to the people of Israel, and had special regard to the promise made to David concerning Israel's King. It also had in view the promise made to Abraham concerning the blessing of all the families of the earth, but did not, at that time, extend to them, being concentrated rather upon Israel from whom, as the appointed channel, the blessing should flow to all nations. We shall now bring Scriptural proof of these statements, and then proceed to show that Matthew twenty-four and twenty-five speak of the hope of ISRAEL, and that this phase of the second advent has nothing to do with the hope of the "church".

Proof that the earthly ministry was limited in the first instance to Israel.

"Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the CIRCUMCISION for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the FATHERS" (Rom. 15:8).

"Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not; but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of ISRAEL" (Matt. 10:5-6).

"I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of ISRAEL" (Matt. 15:24).

Proof that the promise made to David concerning a King was in view.

"Where is He that is born KING of the Jews? . . . in Bethlehem" (Matt. 2:2-5).

"Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy KING cometh unto thee" (Matt. 21:5).

"What think ye of Christ, whose Son is He? They say unto Him, The Son of DAVID" (Matt. 22:42).

"David. . . being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, HE WOULD RAISE UP CHRIST TO SIT ON HIS THRONE; He seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ" (Acts 2:30-31).

Proof that the promise to Abraham concerning Israel as the chosen channel of blessing to the Gentiles was in view.

"Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed. UNTO YOU FIRST God, having raised up His Son Jesus, sent Him to bless YOU, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities" (Acts 3:25-26).

The consideration of these Scriptures in their setting provides sufficient proof for the statements made concerning the character of the Saviour's earthly ministry.

We are now in a position to consider Matthew twenty-four and twenty-five, which is a prophecy of the second coming of Christ, and concerns the hope of Israel as distinct from the hope of the church.

The threefold prophecy of the coming of the Lord as revealed in Matthew twenty-four was given in answer to the threefold question of the disciples-

"When shall these things be?"

"What shall be the sign of Thy coming?"

"And the end of the world (age)?"

The evidence which follows, sufficiently shows that in this passage the hope of Israel and not the hope of "the church which is His Body" is the subject.

Three proofs that Matthew twenty-four speaks of the Hope of Israel

First the word translated "end" is sunteleia, a word at that time well known to every Jew, for it was the name of the third great feast, namely "the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year" (Exod. 23:16). This is evidence that Israel's hope is in view.

Secondly, we find that this coming of the Lord is to be preceded by "wars and rumours of wars". Because of the fact that there have been, and yet will be, many wars and rumours of wars since the setting aside of Israel, these words, as they stand, cannot be construed as evidence that Israel's hope is in view. If however we turn to the O.T. origin of the reference: "For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom" (Matt. 24:7), we shall see that it comes from Isaiah's prophetic "Burden of Egypt" (Isa. 19:1-2), the passage ending with the words "Blessed be Egypt My people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance" (Isa. 19:25). This reference, therefore, when seen in the light of its O.T. setting, gives further evidence for the fact that Israel is in view in Matthew twenty-four.

Thirdly, this coming of the Lord takes place after the prophetic statements of Daniel 9:27 and Dan. 12:11 have been fulfilled.

"When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place . . . then shall be great tribulation . . . IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE TRIBULATION of those days . . . shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven . . . and they shall see the Son of man COMING IN THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN" (Matt. 24:15-30).

These three items provide proof beyond dispute that the second coming of Christ as here made known cannot be the hope of the church.

THE HOPE OF THE SECOND SPHERE
The Acts and Epistles of the Period

We must now turn our attention to the evidence of Scripture as to the character of the Hope during the period covered by the Acts of the Apostles. Some commentators on this book appear to forget that it is the record of the "Acts" of the Apostles, and had no existence until those "Acts" were accomplished. If the founding of the church at Corinth chronicled in Acts eighteen be an act of the apostle Paul, both Crispus (verse 8) and Sosthenes (verse 17) being mentioned by name, then the epistle written by the same apostle to the same church, again mentioning Crispus and Sosthenes by name, must be included as the Divine complement of the record of Acts eighteen. The aspect of the Hope in view in the Acts and in the epistles written during that period to the churches founded by the Apostles must of necessity be the same. Any attempt to make the ministry of Paul during the Acts differ from the epistles of the same period is false, and must be rejected. There can be no doubt that the hope entertained by the churches during the period covered by the Acts of the Apostles was a phase of the Hope of Israel. This will, we trust, be made clear by the quotations and comments given hereafter.

"When they therefore were come together, they asked of Him, saying, Lord, wilt Thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?" (Acts 1:6).

This question arose after the forty days' instruction given by the risen Christ to His disciples, during which time He not only opened the Scriptures, but "their understanding" also (Luke 24:45).

"Repent . . . and He shall send Jesus Christ, Which before was preached unto you: Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began. . . . Ye are the children of the prophets. . . . Unto you first. . ." (Acts 3:19-26).

These words of Peter, spoken after Pentecost, cannot be separated from the hope of Israel without violence to the inspired words. It may be, that some readers will interpose the thought: "These are from the testimony of Peter; what we want is the testimony of Paul." We therefore give two more extracts from the Acts, quoting this time from the ministry of Paul.

"And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers: unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come" (Acts 26:6-7).

"Paul called the chief of the Jews together . . . because that for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain" (Acts 28:17-20).

Not until the Jewish people were set aside in Acts 28:25-29 does Paul become "the prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles". Until it was a settled fact that Israel would not repent and that the promise of Acts 3:19-26 would be postponed, the hope of Israel persisted, and all the churches that had been brought into being up to that time were of necessity associated with that hope. See the testimony of Romans, which is set out in much fuller detail after the reference to the heavenly calling is completed.

The Heavenly Calling

We have already drawn attention to the intimate association that exists between "hope", "promise" and "calling". We must pause for a moment here to remind the reader that Abraham stands at the head of two companies: an earthly people, the great nation of Israel; and a heavenly people, associated with the heavenly phase of God's promise to Abraham, and made up of the believing remnant of Israel and believing Gentiles. This heavenly side of the Abrahamic promise is referred to by the Apostle in Hebrews and Galatians:

"He looked for a city. . . . They seek a country. . . . They desire a better country, that is, an heavenly; wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for He hath prepared for them a city" (Heb. 11:10, Heb. 11:14, Heb. 11:16).

"If ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise. . . . Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother' of us all" (Gal. 3:29, (Gal. 4:26).

This heavenly calling of the Abrahamic promise constitutes the Bride of the Lamb, as distinct from the restored Wife, which refers to Israel as a nation. We leave the reader to verify these statements for himself by referring to Isaiah, Jeremiah and Hosea, where Israel's restoration is spoken of under the figure of the restored Wife; and to the Book of the Revelation where the heavenly city is described as the Bride. During the time of the Acts of the Apostles, the churches founded by Paul were "Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise" (Gal. 3:29). The Apostle speaks of "espousing them to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ" (2 Cor. 11:2).

This heavenly phase of the hope of Israel was the hope of all the churches established during the Acts, until Israel was set aside as recorded in Acts twenty-eight.

The Testimony of Romans

The epistles written by Paul before his imprisonment were Galatians, Hebrews, Romans, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, and 1 and 2 Corinthians. We are sure that any well-instructed reader who was asked to choose from this set of epistles the one giving the most recent as well as the most fundamental teaching of the apostle for this period, would unhesitatingly choose the epistle to the Romans. In this epistle we have the solid rock foundation of justification by faith, where "no difference" can be tolerated between Jew and Gentile. When, however, we leave the sphere of doctrine (Rom. 1-8), and enter the sphere of dispensational privileges, we discover that differences between Jewish and Gentile believers remain. The Gentile, who was justified by faith, was nevertheless reminded that he was at that time in the position of a wild olive, graft into the true olive tree, from which some of the branches had been broken off through unbelief. The grafting of the Gentile into Israel's olive tree was intended (speaking after the manner of men) to provoke Israel to jealousy. When, in the days to come, these broken branches shall be restored, "All Israel shall be saved".

These statements from Romans eleven are sufficient to prevent us from assuming that, because there is evidently DOCTRINAL equality in the Acts period, there is also DISPENSATIONAL equality. This is not so, for Romans declares that the Jew is still "first", and the middle wall still stands, making membership of the One Body as revealed in Ephesians impossible.

In Romans fifteen we have a definite statement concerning the hope entertained by the church at Rome. Before quoting the passage, Romans 15:12-13, we would advise the reader that the word "trust" in verse 12 is elpizo, and the word "hope" in verse 13 elpis. There is also the emphatic article "the" before the word "hope" in verse 12. Bearing these points in mind we can now examine the hope entertained by the church at Rome, as ministered to by Paul before his imprisonment.

"There shall be a Root of Jesse, and He that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in Him shall the Gentiles hope. Now the God of that hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost" (Rom. 15:12-13).

Here we are on firm ground. Paul himself teaches the church to look for the millennial kingdom and for the Saviour as the "Root of Jesse" Who shall "reign over the Gentiles". How can this hope be severed from "the hope of Israel"? How can it be associated with the "Mystery" which knows nothing of Abraham, or of Israel, but goes back before the "foundation of the world", and reaches up to heavenly places? In case the reader should be uncertain of Paul's references to the millennial Kingdom, we quote from Isaiah eleven:

"And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse. . . . He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked. . . . The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb. . . . And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to It shall the Gentiles seek: and His rest shall be glorious" (Isa. 11:1, Isa. 11:4, Isa. 11:6, Isa. 11:10).

The reader should consult the note on Isaiah 11:4 given in The Companion Bible, where the reading, "He shall smite the oppressor" (ariz) is preferred to the A.V. "He shall smite the earth" (erez). This reading establishes a link with 2 Thessalonians 2:8:

"And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming."

Before referring to 1 Thessalonians four, which presents the hope of the church at that time very clearly, we must say something about the strange avoidance of the second epistle that so many manifest when dealing with this subject.

The Importance of a Second Epistle

If a business man were to treat his correspondence in the way that some believers treat the epistles of Paul, the results would be disastrous. A second letter, purporting to rectify a misunderstanding arising out of a previous letter, would, if anything, be more important and more decisive than the first; yet there are those whose system of interpretation demands that they shall claim 1 Thessalonians four as the revelation of their hope, who nevertheless either neglect the testimony of 2 Thessalonians or explain it away as of some future mystical company unknown to the Apostle. Let us first verify that these two epistles form a definite pair, written by the same writer, at the same period, to the same people, about the same subject.

Identity of Address

FIRST EPISTLE "Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians which is in God the Father and in the Lord Jesus Christ" (1 Thess. 1:1).

SECOND EPISTLE "Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Thess. 1:1).

Identity of Theme

FIRST EPISTLE "Remembering without ceasing your work of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the sight of God and our Father" (1 Thess. 1:3).

SECOND EPISTLE "We are bound to thank God always for you, brethren, as it is meet; because that your faith groweth exceedingly, and the love of every one of you all towards each other aboundeth; so that we . . . glory . . . in your patience" (2 Thess. 1:3).

FIRST EPISTLE "The coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints" (1 Thess. 3:13). (A reference to Deut. 33:2, Psa. 68:17 and Zech. 14:5 will show that the "saints" here are the "holy angels" and not the church).

SECOND EPISTLE "The Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming fire" (2 Thess. 1:7-8).

The Special Purpose of Second Thessalonians

The Thessalonian Church had been disturbed by the circulation of a letter purporting to have come from the Apostle, and by certain messages given by those who claimed to have "the spirit". These messages distorted the Apostle's teaching concerning the coming of the Lord, as taught in the church while he was with them and mentioned in the fourth chapter of his letter.

"We beseech you, brethren . . . that ye be not soon shaken in mind or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ (or the Lord) is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first" (2 Thess. 2:1-3).

Before the hope of the church at Thessalonica could be realized, certain important prophecies awaited fulfilment. As we have seen, the hope during the period of the Acts (and therefore that of 1 Thessalonians four) was essentially the hope of Israel. When 1 Thessalonians four was written, Israel were still God's people. The Temple still stood, and the possibility (speaking humanly) of Israel's repentance had still to be reckoned with. If the hope of Israel was about to be fulfilled, then Daniel 9-12 must be fulfilled also, together with many other prophecies of the time of the end. This we have seen to have been the testimony of the Lord Himself in Matthew twenty-four, and so far Israel had not been set aside (i.e. when the epistles to the Thessalonians were written).

The following predicted events must precede the coming of the Lord as revealed in 1 and 2 Thessalonians:

The apostasy must come first ("falling away", Greek apostasia).

The Man of Sin must be revealed in the Temple (the word "Temple" is the same as in Matthew 23:16).

The coming of this Wicked One will be preceded by a Satanic travesty of Pentecostal gifts. (The same words are used as of Pentecost, with the addition of the word "lying".)

This Wicked One shall be "consumed" and "destroyed" with the brightness of the Lord's coming (see Isaiah 11:4, revised reading).

All this the Apostle had told the Thessalonian church when he was with them, before he wrote 1 Thessalonians four (see 2 Thess. 2:5).

The Thessalonians had already been taught by the Apostle himself concerning the events of prophecy, and would doubtless have read 1 Thessalonians four in harmony with his teaching had they not been deceived by false interpretations. The reference to the Archangel would have taken them back to Daniel 10-12. The epistle of Jude uses exactly the same word as is used here, and tells us that the Archangel's name is Michael (Jude 9). Immediately following the great prophecy of the seventy weeks, with its climax in the "Abomination of desolation", we have the revelation of Daniel ten. There the veil is partially withdrawn, and a glimpse is given of the Satanic forces behind the "powers that be". Michael is said to be "your Prince" and in Daniel twelve we read:

"And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation . . . and many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake" (Dan. 12:1-2).

Here we have Michael identified with the people of Israel, and when he stands up the great tribulation and the resurrection take place. This FOLLOWS THE EVENTS OF DANIEL ELEVEN, which are briefly summarized in 2 Thessalonians two. Compare, for example, the following passages:

"He shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods" (Dan. 11:36).

"Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped" (2 Thess. 2:4).

1 and 2 Thessalonians and Revelation thirteen

If the reader would read consecutively Daniel nine, ten, eleven and twelve, 1 Thessalonians four and five, 2 Thessalonians one and two, and Revelation thirteen, the testimony of the truth itself would be so strong as to need no human advocate. Our space is limited, and we therefore earnestly ask all who value the teaching of the Scriptures regarding "that blessed hope" to read and compare these portions most carefully and prayerfully. When this is done, let the question be answered: "what have all these Scriptures to do with the church of the dispensation of the Mystery, a church called into being consequent upon Israel's removal and the suspension of Israel's hope?" The answer can only be that, while the close association of the hope of the Thessalonians with the hope of Israel was consistent with the character of the dispensation then in force, the attempt to link the "one hope of our calling" with prophetic times is a dispensational anachronism and a failure to distinguish things that differ.

"Till He Come"

The coming of the Lord referred to in 1 Corinthians 11:26 must be the same hope as was entertained by the Thessalonians, and by the church at Rome (Rom. 15:12-13). The Apostle himself summarizes this hope in Acts 28:20 as the "hope of Israel". The Corinthian epistle deals with a variety of subjects, and is addressed to different sections of the church. Some called themselves by the name of Paul, others by the name of Cephas. Some were troubled with regard to the question of marriage, and others with regard to moral questions. The section in which the words "till He come" occur is addressed to those whose "fathers" were "baptized unto Moses" (1 Cor. 10:1); whereas the section that immediately follows is addressed to Gentiles (1 Cor. 12:2). Concerning the question of marriage, the Apostle writes:

"I suppose therefore that this is good for the present distress. . . . The time is short: it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though they had none; and they that weep, as though they wept not. . . and they that buy, as though they possessed not" (1 Cor. 7:26-30).

Shall we fall into the error of teaching, as some have taught, that marriage is wrong because of what Paul says in this chapter? If we do, what shall we say of his wonderful words concerning husband and wife in Ephesians five? Or of his advice that the younger women should not only marry, but marry again if left as widows? (1 Tim. 5:9-14). The right interpretation is clearly that Paul's advice in 1 Corinthians seven was true AT THE TIME, because the Second Coming of Christ was expected to take place during the lifetime of some of his hearers. He speaks as he does, "because of the present necessity", and because "the time is short". When writing to the Thessalonians, he rightly identifies himself with the imminent hope of the Lord's coming by saying: "We which are alive" (1 Thess. 4).

The "present necessity" of 1 Corinthians seven is no longer applicable on account of the failure of Israel and the suspension of their hope. So in 1 Corinthians eleven, the teaching of the chapter was only true while the hope of that calling was still imminent. When the people of Israel passed into their present condition of blindness, as they did in Acts twenty-eight, their hope passed with them, not to be revived until the end of the days, when the Apocalypse is fulfilled. Meanwhile a new dispensation has come in, a dispensation associated with a "mystery" and unconnected with Israel. In the very nature of things a change of dispensation means a change of calling. It introduces a new sphere and a fresh set of promises, and demands a re-statement of its own peculiar hope.

HOPE OF THE THIRD SPHERE
The Manifestation in Glory

Before considering the special characteristics of the hope of the church of the One Body, it may be of service to set out some of the distinctive features of the dispensation of the Mystery, so that, perceiving the unique character of its calling, we shall be compelled to believe the unique character of its hope.

Special features of the present dispensation:

First of all let us observe two features that marked the previous dispensation, but are now absent.

The presence and prominence of Israel.

The testimony of the Gospels (Matt. 10:6, Matt. 15:24), the witness of Peter (Acts 3:25-26), and the testimony of Paul (Rom. 1:16, Rom. 3:29, Rom. 9:1-5, Rom. 11:24-25 and Rom. 15:8), all combine to show that the nation of Israel was an important factor in the outworking of the purpose of the ages, and that during the period covered by the Gospels and the Acts, no blessing could be enjoyed by a Gentile in independence of Israel. It is evident that with the setting aside of this favoured people, a change in dispensation was necessitated.

The presence and prominence of miraculous gifts.

Throughout the public ministry of the Lord Jesus, and from Pentecost in Acts two until the shipwreck on the island of Melita in Acts twenty-eight, supernatural signs, wonders and miracles accompanied and confirmed the preached word. Not only did the Lord Himself and also His apostles work miracles, but during the time of the Acts ordinary members of the church were in possession of spiritual gifts in such abundance that they had to seek the Apostle's advice as to their regulation in the assembly (1 Cor. 14:26-40). The miracles of Mark sixteen, Acts two and 1 Corinthians twelve to fourteen are not the normal experience of the church of today. Their absence, together with the setting aside of the people of Israel, constitute two pieces of negative evidence in favour of a new dispensation. We are not, however, limited to negative evidence. Scripture also provides definite evidence of a positive kind, which we must now consider.

The prison ministry of the Apostle Paul.

When Paul spoke to the elders of the church at Ephesus, he made it quite plain that one ministry was coming to an end and another, closely associated with prison, was about to begin. Re reviewed his past services among them, and told them among other things that they should see his face no more (Acts 20:17-38). Later, before King Agrippa, he reveals the important fact that when he was converted and commissioned by the Lord, in Acts nine, he had been told that at some subsequent time the Lord would appear to him again and give him a second commission (Acts 26:15-18).

The dispensational boundary of Acts twenty-eight.

Right up to the last chapter of the Acts, Israel and miraculous gifts continued to occupy their pre-eminent place (Acts 28:1-10, Acts 28:17, Acts 28:20). Upon arrival at Rome, Paul, although desirous of visiting the church (Rom. 1:11-13), sent first for the "chief of the Jews", telling them that "for the hope of Israel" he was bound with a chain. After spending a whole day with these men of Israel, seeking unsuccessfully to persuade them "concerning Jesus" out of the law and the prophets, he pronounces finally their present doom of blindness, adding:

"Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles, and that they will hear it" (Acts 28:28).

During the two years of imprisonment that followed, the Apostle ministered to all that came to him, teaching those things which "concern the Lord Jesus Christ" with no reference this time either to the law or to the prophets (Acts 28:30-31).

The present dispensation a new revelation.

The omission of "the law and the prophets" from Acts 28:31, as compared with verse 23, is an important point. Throughout the early ministry of the Apostle he makes continual and repeated appeal to the O.T. Scriptures. But when one examines the "Prison Epistles" one is struck by the absence of quotation. The reason for this change is that Paul, as the prisoner of Jesus Christ for the Gentiles, received the Mystery "by revelation" (Eph. 3:1-3). This mystery had been hidden from ages and generations, until the time came for Paul to be made its minister (Col. 1:24-27). It could not, therefore, be found in the O.T. Scriptures.

Some special features of this new calling.

This church was chosen "before the foundation of the world" (Eph. 1:4) and "before age-times" (2 Tim. 1:9).

This church finds its sphere of blessing "in heavenly p1aces, far above all principality and power. . . seated together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus" (Eph. 1:3, Eph. 1:20-21, Eph. 2:6).

This church is not an "evolution", but a new "creation", the peculiar advantage of being a Jew, even though a member of the church, having disappeared with the middle wall of partition (Eph. 2:14-19).

This church is the One Body of which Christ is the Head, and in which all members are equal (Eph. 1:22-23, Eph. 3:6), a relationship never before known.

The Prison Epistles.

While the very nature of things demands a new dispensation consequent upon Israel's removal, we are not left to mere inference. There is a definite section of the N.T. with special teaching relating to the church of the present dispensation. This is found in the epistles written by Paul as the prisoner of the Lord for us Gentiles. These epistles are five in number, but we generally refer to the "four Prison Epistles", as that to Philemon is practical and personal and makes no contribution to the new teaching.

The four Prison Epistles are:

A EPHESIANS. The Dispensation of the Mystery. Basic Truth

B PHILIPPIANS. The Prize. Outworking.

A COLOSSIANS. The Dispensation of the Mystery. Basic Truth

B 2 TIMOTHY. The Crown. Outworking.

The reader will find in each of these epistles, evidence that they were written from prison and that they form part of the ministry referred to in Acts 28:31.

The above notes on these 7 features are necessarily brief and are not intended to do anything more than provide the merest outline of the subject. Any reader who is not convinced as to the peculiar and unique character of these prison epistles and the dispensation they reveal, should give them a personal study, noting all their claims, and their distinctive features. This article has not been written to prove to the satisfaction of all that a new dispensation commenced at Acts twenty-eight, but has been prepared rather as a help to those who, having realized that a change most certainly did take place in the dispensational dealings of God with men at that time, desire to understand what effect this change had upon the hope of the church.

The new phase of Hope necessitates Prayer

While prayer should accompany the Word at all times, there is no need to pray for "revelation" concerning one's hope if it be already revealed. Words can scarcely be clearer than those employed in 1 Thessalonians four, and if this chapter still represented the hope of the church of the One Body, there would be no need for the Apostle to speak as he does in Ephesians one. In verse 17, he prays that the saints might receive "the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him . . . that ye may know what is the hope of His calling" (Eph. 1:17-18).

It might be well if the reader pondered the marginal reading of Ephesians 1:17 where, instead of "in the knowledge of Him", we read, "for the acknowledging of Him". This raises a most important point. Many fail to go forward with the truth, not because of inability to understand the meaning of plain terms, but because of failure to "acknowledge Him". The Apostle pauses in his teaching to tell his hearers that before another step can be taken, acknowledgment of what has already been revealed must be made. To acknowledge the truth of the Mystery is to put oneself out of favour with denominationalism; and many a child of God who says, "I do not see it", is really making a confession of failure to acknowledge the revelation of truth connected with the ascended Lord.

This new phase of Hope is associated with a Promise

We have already seen that hope and promise are necessarily linked together. We discovered that the promises that were the basis of expectation during the Acts were the promises "made unto the fathers". Now the fathers had no promises made to them concerning heavenly places "where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God". They knew nothing of a church where Gentile believers would be on perfect equality with Jewish believers. The promises made to the fathers never extended beyond "the Bride" or "the Heavenly Jerusalem", but in Ephesians we have "the Body" and a sphere "far above all".

In Ephesians 1:12, where the A.V. reads "first trusted", the margin reads "hoped"; and as we cannot speak of "the blessed trust" or "the trust of the second coming" it is best to keep to the translation "hope". The actual word used is proelpizo, to "fore-hope". Of this prior hope the Holy Spirit is the seal, and as such is "the Holy Spirit of promise".

What promise is in view? There is but one promise in the Prison Epistles. The Gentiles who formed the church of the One Body were by nature

"aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise" (Eph. 2:12),

but through grace they became

"fellow-heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of His promise in Christ by the gospel; whereof I (Paul) was made a minister" (Eph. 3:6-7).

This promise takes us back to the period of Ephesians 1:4, "before the foundation of the world":

"According to the promise of life, which is in Christ Jesus . . . according to His own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began" (before age-times) (2 Tim. 1:1, 2 Tim. 1:9).

It is this one unique promise that will be realized when the blessed hope before the church of the One Body is fulfilled. Its realization is described by the Apostle in Colossians three:

"When Christ, Who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with Rim in glory" (Col. 3:4).

It is impossible to defer this "appearing" until after the Millennium, for the church is waiting for "Christ their fife" and so awaiting "the promise of life", which is their hope. The word "appearing" might be translated "manifestation" , and will be familiar to most readers in the term "epiphany".

Parousia and Epiphany

Believing as we do that all Scripture is given by inspiration of God, we must be careful to distinguish between the different words used by God when speaking of the hope of His people. We observe that the word parousia usually translated "coming" , is found in such passages as the following:

"What shall be the sign of Thy COMING and of the end of the age?" (Matt. 24:3).

"The COMING of the Lord" (1 Thess. 4:15).

"The COMING of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Thess. 2:1).

"They that are Christ's at His COMING" (1 Cor. 15:23).

"The COMING of the Lord draweth nigh" (Jas. 5:8).

"The promise of His COMING" (2 Pet. 3:4).

"Not ashamed before Him at His COMING" (1 John 2:28).

This word is used to describe the hope of the church during the period when "the hope of Israel" was still in view. Consequently we find it used in the Gospel of Matthew, by Peter, James and John, ministers of the circumcision, and by Paul in those epistles written before the dispensational change of Acts twenty-eight.

A different word is used in the Prison Epistles. There, the word parousia is never used of the Lord's coming or of the hope of the church, but the word epiphany. In 1 Thessalonians four the Lord descends from heaven; in 2 Thessalonians one He is to be revealed from heaven. This is very different from being manifested "in glory", i.e. where Christ now sits "on the right hand of God". While, therefore, the hope before all other companies of the redeemed is "the Lord's coming", the "prior-hope" of the church of the Mystery is rather "their going" to be "manifested with Him in glory".

While the epistle to Titus is not a "Prison Epistle", it belongs to the same group as 1 and 2 Timothy. There, too, we read that we should live

"looking for that blessed hope, and the manifestation of the glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ" (Titus 2:13).

The Marriage of the King's Son

We may perhaps illustrate these different aspects of the Second Advent by using the occasion of the marriage of a King of England at Westminster Abbey. The marriage is one, whether witnessed in the Abbey itself, from a grandstand, or from the public footway. So, whatever our calling, the hope is one in this respect, that it is Christ Himself. Nevertheless, we cannot conceive of anyone denying that to be permitted to be present in the Abbey itself is something different from sitting in a grandstand until the King's son, accompanied by "shout" and "trumpet", descends from the Abbey to be met by the waiting people. These waiting people outside the Abbey form one great company, although differentiated as to point of view. So the early church, together with the Kingdom saints, form one great company, although some, like Abraham, belong to "the heavenly calling" connected with Jerusalem that is above, while others belong to the Kingdom which is to be "on earth". We can hardly believe that any subject of the King would "prefer" the grandstand or the curb to the closer association of the Abbey itself; and we can hardly believe that any redeemed child of God would "prefer" to wait on earth for the descent of the Lord from heaven if the "manifestation with Him in glory" were a possible hope before him. We cannot, however, force these things upon the heart and conscience. We can only respond to the exhortation to be "ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and reverence" (1 Pet. 3:15).

Write comment (1 Comment)

The interpretation of this verse depends entirely on punctuation, which rests wholly on human authority, the Greek manuscripts having no punctuation of any kind till the ninth century, and then it is only a dot (in the middle of the line) separating each word.

The Verb "to say", when followed by hoti, introduces the ipsissima verba of what is said;  and answers to our quotation marks.  So here (in Luke 23:43), in the absence of hoti = "that", there may be a doubt as to the actual words included in the dependent clause.  But the doubt is resolved (1) by the common Hebrew idiom, "I say unto thee this day", which is constantly used for very solemn emphasis;  as well as (2) by the usage observable in other passages where the verb is connected with the Gr. semeron = to-day.

1. With hoti : --

  • Mark 14:30 :  "Verily I say unto thee, that (hoti) 'this day ... thou shalt deny me thrice.' "

  • Luke 4:21 :  "And He began to say unto them, that (hoti) 'This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.' "

  • Luke 5:26 :  "Saying ( hoti =that), 'We have seen strange things to-day.' "

  • Luke 19:9 :  "Jesus said unto him that (hoti), this day is salvation come into this house.' "

For other examples of the verb "to say", followed by hoti, but not connected with semeron (to-day), see Matt. 14:26;  Matt. 16:18;  Matt. 21:3;  Matt. 26:34;  Matt. 27:47;   Mark 1:40;  Mark 6:14-15, Mark 6:18, Mark 6:35;  Mark 9:26;  Mark 14:25.  Luke 4:24, Luke 4:41;  Luke 15:27;  Luke 17:10;  Luke 19:7.

2. Without hoti : --

On the other hand, in the absence of hoti (= that), the relation of the word "to-day" must be determined by the context.

Luke 22:34 :  "And He said, 'I tell thee, Peter, in no wise shall a cock crow to-day before thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest Me.' "  Here the word "to-day" is connected with the verb "crow", because the context requires it.  Compare Heb. 4:7.

It is the same in Luke 23:43 :  "And Jesus said to him, 'Verily I say unto thee to-day [or this day (*1), when, though they were about to die, this man had expressed so great faith in Messiah's coming Kingdom, and therefore in the Lord's resurrection to be its King -- now, under such solemn circumstances] thou shalt be, with Me, in Paradise.' "  For when Messiah shall reign His Kingdom will convert the promised land into a Paradise.  Read Isa. 35.

We must notice also the Article before "Paradise".  It is "THE Paradise", viz. the paradise of which the prophets tell in such glowing language, when the Lord shall come in His Kingdom.  See Psalm 67:4, Psalm 67:6;  Psalm 72:6-7, Psalm 72:16-17.  Isa. 4:2;  Isa. 30:23-24;  Isa. 35:1-2, Isa. 35:5-6;  Isa. 41:18, Isa. 41:20.  Jer. 31:5, Jer. 31:12.  Ezek. 34:25-27;  Ezek. 36:29-30;  Ezek. 47:8-9, Ezek. 47:12.  Hos. 2:18, Hos. 2:21-22.  Joel 3:18.  Amos 9:13-15.  Zech. 8:12.

It has no connexion with Babylonian, Jewish and Romish tradition, but is a direct answer to the malefactor's prayer.   His prayer referred to the Lord's coming and His Kingdom;  and, if the Lord's answer was direct, the promise must have referred to that coming and to that Kingdom, and not to anything that was to happen on that day on which the words were being spoken.

It is alleged that the Lord's promise was a reply to the man's thought;  but this is an assumption for which no justification can be found.  Moreover, how can we know what his thought was, except by the words he uttered?

The Lewis Codex of the Syrian N.T. reads in v. 39 :  "save Thyself and us to-day".  So the Lord's word "to-day" may have reference to the revilings of the one, as well as to the request of the other.


(*1)  It is rendered "to-day" eighteen times in the Gospels, Hebrews and James;  but "this day" twenty-three times (five times in Matthew;  once in Mark;  four times in Luke;  nine times in Acts;  once in Romans;  twice in 2 Corinthians;  and once in Hebrews).


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